APA Referencing Example:
Guralnik, Ferrucci, Simonsick, Salive and Wallace (1995) claimed that good nutrition and a physically active lifestyle have known benefits for prolonging functional independence and reducing the risk of disability, institutionalisation and mortality among older adults. "While improved dietary choices are seen to have a positive impact on normal ageing" (Drewnowski & Evans, 2001, p. 90), participation in regular physical activity is associated with improved ability in daily tasks, a decreased risk of falls and a decrease in the symptoms of chronic disease (Faber, Bosscher, Chin, & van Wieringen, 2006; Fiatarone et al., 1990). Even commenced later in life, and independent of disease or disability, research shows that a physically active lifestyle is an essential component of prolonged capacity in activities of daily living, referred to as functional wellbeing (Sims et al., 2006). However, while it has been reported that older adults are aware of the benefits of physical activity, less than 30% adhere to the national prescribed guidelines (Manini, Druger & Ploutz-Snyder, 2005; Marquez, Bustamante, Blissmer, & Prohaska, 2009).
At baseline, Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to investigate the associations between all variables. A strong association was defined as a moderate to large correlation, > 0.3 and > 0.5, respectively (Cohen, 1988).
With the aim of improving nutritional and activity choices for individuals and families, educators encourage greater knowledge of health, education, welfare, neighbourhoods and food supply by promoting environmental and individual barrier awareness to healthy eating and physical activity (Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok, Gottlieb, & Fernandez, 2010).
Ageing and nutrition is a growing global challenge as life expectancy increases, particularly for women. For example, the incidence of osteoporosis in older women involves its own special nutritional needs, emphases and patterns of malnutrition (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014a). Furthermore WHO (2014a) reveals in almost all countries women comprise the majority of the older population. Nutrient profiling assists to determine nutritional composition related to disease prevention (WHO, 2014b).
"Financial security, social networks and level of education are all factors in successful ageing, and reinforce the need for broad multifactorial modelling" (Marquez et al., 2009, p. 15). In the present study, individuals were members of a social network of independently funded retirees which may explain their physically active lifestyle when compared to the norm for their age group. However, these factors were not measured, nor accounted for in any of the data analysis (LaFrenz, 2005).
Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernandez, M. E. (2010). Planning health promotion programs: An intervention mapping approach. Retrieved from http://www.cdu.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=644777
Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., & Park, C. (2009). Successful aging: The role of physical activity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 20-28. doi: 10.1177/1559827608325456
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Drewnowski, A., & Evans, W. (2001). Nutrition, physical activity, and quality of life in older adults: Summary. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Science, 56(2), 89-94. doi: 10.1093/gerona/56.suppl_2.89
Faber, M., Bosscher, R., Chin, A., & van Wieringen, P. (2006). Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(5), 885-896. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16813773
Fiatarone, M., Marks, E., Ryan, N., Meredith, C., Lipsitz L. A., & Evans, W. (1990). High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians: Effects on skeletal muscle. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(1), 3029-3034. Retrieved from http://faculty.fullerton.edu/leebrown/pdf/Files/Academic/Fiatarone-strengthtrainingoldpeople.pdf
Guralnik, J., Ferrucci, L., , E., Salive, MSimonsick., & Wallace, R. (1995). Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. North English Journal of Medicine, 332(4), 556-561.
LaFrenz, C. (2005, December 5). Financial security: Start saving before middle age; Take a long-term view of retirement. The Adelaide Advertiser. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/docview/355356506?accountid=10424
Manini, T., Druger, M., & Ploutz-Snyder, L. (2005). Misconceptions about strength exercise among older adults. Journal of Ageing and Physical Activity, 13(1), 422-433. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16301754
Marquez, D., Bustamante, E., Blissmer, B., & Prohaska, T. (2009). Health promotion for successful aging. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 12(7), 12-19. doi: 10.1177/1559827608325200
Sims, J., Hill, K., Hunt, S., Haralambous, B., Brown, A., Engel, L.,… Ory, M. (2006). National physical activity recommendations for older Australians: Discussion document. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/B656FF3728F48860CA257BF0001B09D9/$File/pa-guide-older-disc.pdf
World Health Organization. (2014a).Nutrition for older persons. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/ageing/en/
World Health Organization. (2014b). Nutrient profiling. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/profiling/en/
Note: The document above is an example of the layout and format of an essay paper in APA Style.This document is not a referencing guide. Use the APA Style Guide to compile your citation and reference list.
APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines
Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well.
- Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper.
- Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
- The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
- APA recommends using Times New Roman font, size 12.
- Double space the entire research paper
- Include a page header known as the “running head” at the top of every page. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add these components onto each page)
- To create the running head/page header, insert page numbers justified to the right-hand side of the paper (do not put p. or pg. in front of page numbers)
- Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” justified to the left using all capital letters
- If your title is long, this running head title should be a shortened version of the title of your entire paper
Sample running head/page header
APA Paper Components
Your essay should include these four major sections:
- Title Page
- Main Body
This page should contain four pieces: the title of the paper, running head, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and an author’s note. Create the page header/running head as described above.
*Please note that only on the title page, your page header/running head should include the words “Running Head” before your title in all capitals. The rest of the pages should not include this in the page header. It should look like this on the title page:
- The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose
- It should be centered on the page and typed in 12-point Times New Roman font. Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title.
- Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length.
- All text on the title page should be double-spaced in the same way as the rest of your essay
- Do not include any titles on the author’s name such as Dr. or Ms.
- The institutional affiliation is the location where the author conducted the research
Sample Title page:
On the following page, begin with the Running title.
- On the first line of the page, center the word “Abstract” (but do not include quotation marks).
- On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
- This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than 250 words.
- If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.
Sample Abstract page:
On the following page, begin with the Body of the paper.
- Start with the Running title
- On the next line write the title (do not bold, underline, or italicize the title)
- Begin with the introduction. Indent.
- The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
- Begin a new section with the Method. Bold and center this subtitle The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
- Begin a new section with the Results. Bold and center this subtitle. The Results section summarizes the data. Use graphs and graphs to display this data.
- Begin a new section with the Discussion. Bold and center this subtitle. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.
- Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions.
- Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results.
- Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.
** Throughout the body, in-text citations are used and include the author’s/authors’ name(s) and the publication year. In APA format page numbers are not used in in-text citations.
Ex: (Wilkonson, 2009).
For more information about how to cite properly please see EasyBib’s guides for APA citations based on the sources you are using.
Sample Body page:
On a new page, write your references.
- Begin with a running title
- Center and bold the title “References” (do not include quotation marks, underline, or italicize this title)
- Alphabetize and Double-space all entries
- Every article/source mentioned in the paper and used in your study should be referenced and have an entry.
Sample Reference Page: