Research Critique 1
Jamber, E. A., & Zhang, J .J. (1997). Investigating leadership, gender, and coaching level using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 313-322.
The purpose of the study was to determine possible differences in leadership behaviors,
using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS), between male and female coaches
and among different coaching levels. The researchers submitted two hypotheses. The first
hypothesis was that male and female coaches would respond differently to the RLSS in
overall leadership behaviors. The second hypothesis was that differences on the RLSS
would occur among coaching levels: junior high, high school, and college.
The sample was nonrandom, including 162 coaches that were chosen on a volunteer
basis. Within the sample, 118 (0.73) of the coaches were male, while 44 (0.27) were
female. With regard to coaching level, 25 (0.15) were junior high coaches, 99 (0.61) high
school, and 38 (0.24) at the college level. While this is a good sample size, the problem lies
with the distribution of the sample. The sample number for junior high coaches, in particular,
is rather low. A larger sample with regard to all categories would have aided in the data
analysis, particularly when looking for possible interactions between gender and coaching
The instrument utilized was the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale (RLSS) developed
by Zhang, Jensen, and Mann in 1996. This scale is used to measure six leadership
behaviors: training and instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, positive feedback,
and situational consideration. The scale uses 60 statements, which were preceded by In
coaching, I: A Likert scale was then given for each statement: 1 = never; 2 = seldom; 3 =
occasionally; 4 = often; and 5 = always. This produced an ordinal level data set. Scales
were administered in a number of environmental settings: classrooms, gymnasiums, practice
fields, and offices. The internal consistency for each section was calculated: 0.84 for training
and instruction; 0.66 for democratic; 0.70 for autocratic; 0.52 for social support; 0.78 for
positive feedback; and 0.69 for situational consideration. There was no information,
however, regarding the validity of the RLSS.
A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female
coaches with regard to leadership behaviors. This is not consistent with the type of data
collected. The RLSS used a Likert scale (ordinal), yet a MANOVA would be most
applicable for normally distributed, quantitative data. The analysis showed there were no
significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors.
When the six leadership styles were examined separately, there was a significant difference
in social support between males and females. In general, females scored much higher than
did the male coaches.
A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three
levels of coaching (junior high, high school, and college) with regard to leadership behavior
in general. There were significant differences between the three levels. When breaking
down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze
the data. Again, because the data for the RLSS is ordinal, an ANOVA is not the best
analysis tool. The three coaching levels scored differently on three of the six behaviors:
democratic behaviors, training and instruction, and social support. High school coaches
scored much higher than college level coaches in democratic behavior. Junior high coaches
were significantly lower in training and instruction than either high school or college coaches.
Junior high coaches also demonstrated a lesser degree of social support than either the high
school or college coaches.
A MANOVA was again used to analyze the data for any interaction between gender and
coaching level with regard to overall leadership behavior. Once again, a better analysis
method could have been chosen based on the nature of the data collected. The results
indicated no significant interactions.
The ecological generaliziability for the study is fairly high. The surveys were mailed out,
and returned on a volunteer basis. However, due to the nonrandom nature of the sample,
the results would not generalizable beyond the 162 participants in the study. There was no
effect size is listed for the study.
In order to reduce threats to internal validity, the participants were asked to respond
honestly and confidentiality was stressed so that the coaches might feel more at ease in
responding. No other efforts were indicated.
The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings. This could
present a threat to the internal validity in that participants might not have been entirely
focused on completing the scale, but instead on coordinating practice, completing
paperwork, etc. There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of
the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers. Coaching experience would greatly
effect the responses of the participants, yet this was not considered in the study. The gender
of the athletes may be a contributing factor to the coaches responses. It is not unreasonable
to suppose that coaches of female athletes, particularly at the junior high and high school
levels, will demonstrate more social support than those of male athletes. The nature of the
sport could also be critical. Certain coaching styles are more applicable for individual sports
(wrestling, track, and tennis) than for team sports (football, soccer, and basketball). The
socioeconomics and population of the school itself could play a factor. Certain schools have
better athletes and programs in a particular sport, while others may not be able to field a
winning team. In addition, at the high school level, coaches are occasionally asked/forced to
work with a program they have no knowledge of or desire to coach due to staffing
shortages. This could dramatically influence a coachs response to the scale questions. The
history of the program as well as the individual coachs personal coaching history could
greatly influence responses. If the program has had several losing seasons in a row, perhaps
the attitude of the coach could be different than that of a coach who has recently won a state
An additional set of questions regarding the personal history of the coach in question
could have helped reduce many of these threats. With additional information, the
researchers may have been able to use a modified matching system when analyzing the
results. By increasing the number of independent variables to include things such as
coaching experience and gender of the athletes, the researchers could have reduced some of
the potential threats to internal validity. In addition, bringing coaches together to a common
setting could have reduced location threat. Coaches meet seasonally for clinics. Perhaps
obtaining permission to administer the survey during these meetings would have been
possible. It would have also been possible to actually go to individual schools and meet with
the coaches as a group to administer surveys. This method would have given a good
cross-section of gender and coaching experience for a variety of sports.
While the study has merit, the methods need to be re-evaluated. The power of the study
needs to be increased by obtaining a larger sample size. The numerous potential threats to
internal validity need to be addressed and minimized where possible. It would also be
helpful to be given data regarding the validity of the RLSS. Without these, it is impossible to
evaluate the potential meaningfulness of this study.
?On October 20, 2013 a dance performance called “Crystal Jubilee” took place in the NMSU Center of arts. It was a combination of several types of dances in which we could see the participation of some dance companies, such as Contemporary Dance Theatre, Dancesport Company and Sol y Arena. As a famous Indian Proverb states, “To watch us dance is to hear our hearts speak”. At the beginning of the performance I was so excited as I usually do not attend this kind of events.
One of the first dances was “Blind Trust”, it was a Latin Dance Style most probably to be rumba, two couples performed in this dance, and they were dressed in a combination of blue. The music was “Track 8” by Police performed by Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. The lights were in a soft mood perfect for the type of dance they performed. The message behind this dance was trust as the title states, before they started dancing they covered their eyes showing the public the trust they had between each other to follow their steps.
The quality of their performance was very good; you could easily tell that they were advanced dancers. The atmosphere of the dance was romantic; it made me feel like they knew each other for a long time I could feel their connection as they were performing. Later two flamenco dances that were performed astonished me. The first one was “Farruca”. The music was “Farruca Solo Compas”. Their costume was the typical large flamenco dress, with their appropriate makeup and hairstyle.
The lights were perfect, as they started you could see their silhouettes performing and later they appeared. The quality of their performance was very good, sometimes they were not coordinated, but they did it with a lot of confidence and security. The atmosphere of the dance was so intense and the sound as they tapped their shoes against the floor you could feel the energy they were transmitting. In addition there was also the dance called “La primera vez” and it was also flamenco. The music was “Fue en Sevilla” by Salamarina.
This dance was as good as the previous flamenco one; you could also feel the intensity of the dance, it was like you just wanted to stand up and start dancing like them. Afterwards I think my favorite dance of the performance took place, it was called “Ode to the Borderlands”. The dance was a combination of several Latin dance styles. The music was “Arrecotin Arrecotan” by Celia Cruz, “Cuando Piendo en Ti” by Jose Feliciano, “Celia y Tito” by Celia Cruz and Tito Puente. The music was full of happiness and joy you could just smile by hearing to the songs.
Their costumes were not so formal but enough to look elegant. I think that the message was just to transmit us energy, happiness, enjoy the dance. The performance quality of the dancers was very good; you could easily tell that they were advanced dancers. The atmosphere of the dance was of cheerfulness, joy, contentment, it made me feel so good, I just wanted to learn more and dance like them. One of the last dances was “Looking Back, Love Song For Mom”. It was a contemporary dance. The music was “I Know You By Heart” by Diane Scanlon and Eve Nelson, sung by Eva Cassidy.
In this dance there was only one performer, the costume was perfect for the message that she wanted to transmit, and the light was good as we just wanted to focus on the dancer. The message was totally clear for the public and it was beautiful, it was a quick view on a mother’s life. The performance quality of the dancer was excellent. The atmosphere of the dance was of tenderness, it made me feel happy and kind of sad at the same time, because it remind me my mother and how she has fought for us all these years .