Distorted Images Susan Mcclelland Thesis Statements


Envision In Depth teaches core skills in argument and research with over 100 readings on issues that engage students and provide occasions for persuasive writing.


Envision In Depth: Reading, Writing, and Researching Arguments is a combined rhetoric and reader intended for composition courses focusing on argumentation and research-based writing. Taking contemporary culture as its central theme and context, Envision In Depth is concerned with the fundamentals of analyzing and writing powerful, effective arguments. Students using Envision In Depth will learn how to analyze and compose arguments, design and conduct research projects, and produce persuasive visual and oral presentations in response to over 100 contemporary arguments in a wide range of verbal and visual genres.


  • Parts 1-3 offer comprehensive instruction on writing and research with integrated focus on reading and creating both textual and visual arguments.
  • Extended “Writing Project” assignments at the end of Chapters 1-9 encourage students to practice composing in diverse genres. Assignment options include a rhetorical analysis paper, developing an opinion ad, a traditional research project, creating a collaborative presentation, a fieldwork research project, and a multimedia presentation.
  • “Creative Practice” exercises ask students to pause and practice the principles being presented.
  • Part 4 comprises over 100 readings and images that represent the diversity of persuasive writing in contemporary culture. Envision In Depth covers the widest range of genres in any argument reader, with examples of professional essays, scholarly articles, interviews, graphic novels, cartoons, web pages, blogs, photo essays, and multimedia texts--encouraging students to see the vital role that persuasive texts play in both public and academic settings.
  • Readings in Part 4 encourage students to synthesize multiple points of view on a given topic. Each chapter includes 2 or 3 “clusters” of readings that focus on compelling topics and introduce multiple perspectives.
  • “Reflect and Write” questions following each reading selection in Chapters 10-15 prompt students to analyze the reading and also consider their own reaction to it.
  • “Perspectives on the Issue” prompts and "From Reading to Research" assignments at the end of each cluster of readings(in Chs. 10-15) encourage students to compare and contrast ideas, and to move beyond the readings to broader research projects, leading toward longer, more formal research papers.


New to this Edition

  • Extensive new focus on the writing process, including exercises in every chapter called "Writer's Practice" instructs students how to compose a thesis statement, develop effective introductions and conclusions, evaluate sources, integrate quotations in a research essay, format an MLA-style bibliography, experiment with gestures in a presentation, or use the rhetorical appeals in spoken, written, or multimedia communication.
  • New and updated annotated articles and student samples
  • New chapter prompt, "Writing Collaboratively," delivers instruction geared towards writers working together to apply and learn the concepts from earlier chapters in the book.
  • New streamlined reading chapters will interest students across the spectrum, through a focus on life online, food politics, body image, athletics and performance enhancing techniques, situations of conflict and resilience, and issues of cultural identity, citizenship, and rights.

Table of Contents

Part I: Analysis and Argument 1


Chapter 1 Analyzing Texts and Writing Thesis Statements 2

 Understanding Texts Rhetorically 4

 Strategies for Analyzing Rhetorical Texts 7

  Understanding Visual Rhetoric 8

  Understanding Written Rhetoric 13

Reading: Heidi Przybyla, “Giffords Shooting in Arizona May Cool U.S. Political Rhetoric, Hurt Palin” 15

 Writing Across Diverse Media 18

  Analyzing Published Writing 22

Reading: Karl Rove, “After Four Bleak Obama Years, an Opportunity” 25

 Brainstorming Parts of An Essay 28

  Developing a Thesis Statement 29

 Analyzing Student Writing 33

Student Writing: Sophie Shank, “Better Watch Out: ‘Monsanto Claus’ is Coming to Town—A political cartoon

  warns of the destruction wreaked” 25

 The Writer’s Process 39

 Writing Assignments 41


Chapter 2 Understanding Strategies of Persuasion 44

 Identifying Strategies of Argumentation 46

Reading: Ian Bogost, “Persuasive Games” 50

 Understanding the Rhetorical Appeals 51

  Appeals to Emotion: Pathos 53

  Appeals to Reason: Logos 58

  Appeals to Character and Authority: Ethos 63

 Considering Context and Values: Kairos and Doxa 69

 Reading an Ad Analysis 72

Reading: David Zweig, “What Everyone Is Missing About the Lauded New Dove Ad Campaign” 72

 The Writer’s Process 74

 Writing Assignments 75


Chapter 3 Composing Arguments 78

 Understanding the Canons of Rhetoric 79

 Invention in Argument 79

 Arrangement in Argument 85

  Using Classical Strategies of Arrangement 88

  Using Toulmin to Arrange or Analyze an Argument 90

  Considering Rogerian Arguments 91

 Style in Argument 93

  Constructing Your Persona 94

  Choosing a Rhetorical Stance 95

 Writing with Style: Titles, Introductions, and Conclusions 96

 Writing a Position Paper 101

Student Writing: Lindsay Funk, “Rand Paul Asks Does Foreign Aid Make Us Safer? Yes, It Does” 103

  Writing a Position Paper that Considers Multiple Arguments 106

Reading: Richard B. Woodward, “One 9/11 Picture, Thousands of Words: Rorschach of Meanings “ 108

 The Writer’s Process 112

 Writing Assignments 112


Part II: Research Arguments 115


Chapter 4 Planning and Proposing Research Arguments 116

 Asking Research Questions 117

  Constructing a Research Log 119

 Generating Topics and Research Questions 120

 Narrowing Your Topic 123

  Brainstorming Topics Visually 123

 Writing About Your Research Plans 127

  The Research Freewrite 129

Student Writing: Bries Deerrose, “The Research Freewrite” 129

  Drafting the Research Hypothesis 131

 Drafting a Research Proposal 132

Student Writing: Molly Fehr, “Inspiring Nazi Germany: How Hitler Rose to Power through the Use of

  Propaganda and Rousing Rhetoric” 134

 The Writer’s Process 139

 Writing Assignments 140


Chapter 5 Finding and Evaluating Research Sources 142

 Visualizing Research 143

 Developing Search Terms 145

 Understanding Primary and Secondary Sources 146

  Finding Primary Sources 147

  Searching for Secondary Sources 149

 Evaluating Your Sources 152

 Using Field Research 155

  Conducting Interviews 157

  Developing a Survey 160

  Other Models of Fieldwork 163

  Evaluating Field Research Sources 165

 Creating a Dialogue with Your Sources 166

Student Writing: Amanda Johnson, “Dialogue of Sources” 167

 Writing an Annotated Bibliography 169

 The Writer’s Process 173

 Writing Assignments 174


Chapter 6 Organizing and Writing Research Arguments 176

 Organizing Your Draft in Visual Form 177

 Learning Outline Strategies 179

  Outlines with Argumentative Subheads 181

Student Writing: Dexian Cai, “Research Paper Outline” 182 Transitions 186

 Spotlight on Your Argument 186

  Analyzing a Published Argument 187

Reading: Bret Schulte, “Saying it in Cinema” 188

 Integrating Research Sources 190

  Selecting Summary 191

  Picking Paraphrase 192

  Using Direct Quotations 193

  Working with Quotations in Your Writing 193

  Documentation During Integration 197

 Drafting Your Research Argument 198

  Keeping Your Passion 198

  Analyzing a Student’s Draft of a Research-Based Essay 199

Student Writing: Wan Jin Park, “Environmental Leadership: How Al Gore Illuminated an Overlooked Crisis” 199

 Revising Your Draft 205

  Troubleshooting 206

  Collaboration Through Peer Feedback 208

 Analyzing a Student’s Revision of a Research-Based Essay 209

Student Writing: Wan Jin Park, “Balancing the Soft and the Passionate Rhetorician: Gore’s Dynamic Rhetoric in

  His Environmental Leadership” 210

 The Writer’s Process 220

 Writing Assignments 221


Chapter 7 Avoiding Plagiarism and Documenting Sources 223

 Understanding Intellectual Property and Plagiarism 224

  Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism 226

  Working with Images and Multimedia as Sources 226

 Understanding Documentation Style 227

  In-Text Citations: Documentation as Cross-Referencing 228

  Using Notes for Documentation 231

 Producing a Works Cited List in MLA Style 232

  Documentation for Print and Online Text-Based Sources 233

  Documentation for Visual, Audio, and Multimedia Sources 238

  Student Paper in MLA Style 242

Student Writing: Stephanie Parker, “Soompi and the ‘Honorary Asian’: Shifting Identities in the Digital Age” 243

 The Writer’s Process 249

 Writing Assignments 249


Part III: Design and Delivery 251


Chapter 8 Designing Arguments 252

 Understanding Document Design and Decorum 253

 Understanding Academic Writing Conventions 255

 Integrating Images in Academic Writing 257

  Design of Academic Papers 259

 Tools of Design for Academic Audiences 259

  Writing an Abstract 259

Student Writing: Zachary Templeton, “Video Games: A Viable and Accessible Treatment Option for Depression”


 Constructing Your Bio 262

Student Writing: Molly Cunningham, Bio 263

 Formatting Writing for Audience and Purpose 264

Reading: London Greenpeace, “What’s Wrong with the Body Shop?” 265

 Designing Arguments in Popular Formats 269

  Crafting an Op-Ad 269

Student Writing: Carrie Tsosie, “Alternative Energy for Whom?” 271

  Producing a Photo Essay 271

Student Writing: Conor Henrikson, “Art on Campus” 272

  Composing in Newsletter or Magazine Format 274

Student Writing: Miranda Smith, “Charities Taking Action Against Hunger” 275

  Composing a Website 275

  Creating an Online Video 280

 The Writer’s Process 282

 Writing Assignments 283


Chapter 9 Delivering Presentations 285

 Branches of Oratory 287

 Audience, Purpose, and Persona 288

 Transforming Research Writing into a Presentation 290

  Selection 291

  Organization 292

  Translation 294

 Writing and Designing a Presentation 295

Student Writing: Nicholas Spears, “Lady Gaga Research Proposal ‘Script’ ” 296

  Strategies of Presentation Design 299

  Writing for Poster Sessions 301

  Writing for Multimedia Presentations 302

  Working with Slideshows 303

  Beyond the Slideshow 305

 Choosing Methods of Memory and Delivery 307

  Harnessing Memory for Live Performances 307

  Mastering Delivery for Live Performances 308

 Practicing Your Presentation 311

  Anticipating Problems and the Question-and-Answer Session 312

 Documenting Your Presentation 313

 The Writer’s Process 315

 Writing Assignments 315


Part IV: Readings 319


Chapter 10 You Are What You Eat 320

Kate Murphy, “First Camera, Then Fork” 322

   Food Photographs 326

 Writing Collaboratively 327

Michelle Obama, “Remarks Prepared for the Let’s Move Launch” 327

United States Department of Agriculture, Nutritional Information Graphics 337

Michael Pollan, “How Change Is Going to Come in the Food System” 340

Information Graphic: Locavorism vs. Globavorism 343

Taylor Clark, “Meatless Like Me” 344

Peter Menzel and Faith d’Aluisio, Photographs from Hungry Planet 348

James McWilliams, “The Green Monster” 351

The New York Times Editors, “Can Biotech Food Cure World Hunger?” 355

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 359

 From Reading to Research Assignments 360


Chapter 11 Life Online 362

Editorial Cartoon 364

Christine Erickson, “The Social Psychology of the Selfie” 365

Robbie Cooper, from Alter Ego: Avatars and Their Creators 370

Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, Aaron Smith, Kristen Purcell, Kathryn Zickuhr, and Lee Rainie,

 Excerpt from “Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites” 374

danah boyd and Alice Marwick, Excerpt from “Social Privacy in Networked

  Publics: Teens’ Attitudes, Practices, and Strategies” 379

Clive Thompson, “I’m So Totally, Digitally Close to You” 388

 Writing Collaboratively 397

xkcd, “Online Communities 2” 398

Art Silverblatt, “Twitter As Newspeak” 399

Evgeny Morozov, “From Slacktivism to Activism” 402

Daniel Terdiman, “Playing Games with a Conscience” 407

Screenshots: Games for Change 410

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 412

 From Reading to Research Assignments 412


Chapter 12 Imagining the Ideal Body 414

Pamela Abbott and Francesca Sapsford, “Clothing the Young Female Body” 417

Photograph: Swedish Mannequins 422

Susie Orbach, “Fat Is an Advertising Issue” 423

John Riviello, “What If Barbie Was an Actual Person? A Flash Movie” 428

National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA), 2012 Anorexia Awareness Poster 429

 Writing Collaboratively 430

Susan McClelland, “Distorted Images: Western Cultures Are Exporting Their Dangerous Obsession with

 Thinness” 430

Elinor Frankel, “Should America Follow Israel’s Example and Ban Too-Thin Models?” 433

Charles Atlas, “The Insult That Made a Man Out of ‘Mac’ ” 437

Harrison G. Pope, Jr., Robert Olivardia, Amanda Gruber, and John Borowiecki, “Evolving Ideals of

 Male Body Image as Seen Through Action Toys” 438

 Writing Collaboratively 446

Kim Franke-Folstad, “G.I. Joe’s Big Biceps Are Not a Big Deal” 447

Lore Sjöberg and Kelsey Drake, “Beards of Silicon Valley: A Field Guide to Tech Facial Hair” 449

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 451

 From Reading to Research Assignments 451


Chapter 13 Playing Against Stereotypes 453

Photographs: Defying Stereotypes of Ability 455

Carla Filomena Silva and P. David Howe, “The (In)validity of Supercrip Representation of Paralympian

 Athletes” 457

Thad Mumford, “The New Minstrel Show: Black Vaudeville with Statistics” 464

ESPN, From “Black Athlete Confidential” 467

Dave Zirin, “Say It Ain’t So, Big Leagues” 473

Robert Lipsyte, “Jocks Vs. Pukes” 476

Jealousy of Caster Semenya 480

Sports Illustrated Covers 482

Maya Dusenbery and Jaeah Lee, “The State of Women’s Athletics, 40 Years After Title Ix” 483

The Media Education Foundation, Transcript: Playing Unfair 487

 Writing Collaboratively 498

Shannon Ryan, “Banking on Beauty: Trying to Expand Fan Base by Marketing Its Players, the WNBA for the First

 Time Offers Rookies Lessons in Fashion and Makeup” 499

WNBA, “Expect Great” Commercial 502

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 504

 From Reading to Research Assignments 504


Chapter 14 Crisis and Resilience 506

Drea Knufken, “Help, We’re Drowning!: Please Pay Attention to Our Disaster” 510

Daniel Okrent, “The Public Editor: No Picture Tells the Truth—The Best Do Better Than That” 513

Charles Porter, “Tragedy in Oklahoma” 517

Joe Strupp, “The Photo Felt Around the World” 520

Mark Glaser, “Did London Bombings Turn Citizen Journalists into Citizen Paparazzi?” 523

Make “Pictures of Hurricane Sandy” 528

 Writing Collaboratively 529

David Leeson, “Photographs and Stories” 530

NewsHour Extra with Jim Lehrer, “Pros and Cons of Embedded Journalism” 535

Mark Binelli, “How Detroit Became the World Capital of Staring at Abandoned Old Buildings” 537

Matthew Christoper, “Abandoned America” 541

Lady Gaga, “We Pray for Japan” 543

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 544

 From Reading to Research Assignments 545


Chapter 15 Claiming Citizenship 546

The Center for American Progress, “Infographic: The New Demographics” 549

Meme, “Does History Repeat Itself?” 550

A. G. Sulzberger, “Hispanics Reviving Faded Towns on the Plains” 552

Alex Webb, “Life on the Border” 555

Thomas L. Friedman, “America’s Real Dream Team” 558

Stephen M. Steinlight, “Thomas L. Friedman: Foe of Open-Borders and ‘Comprehensive Immigration Reform’?”


Lexington, “The Hub Nation” 565

 Writing Collaboratively 568

Mark Rice-Oxley, “In 2,000 Years, Will the World Remember Disney or Plato?” 569

Joseph Davicsin and Jerome Sklarsky, “The Daily Targum: Two Opinions on McDonaldization” 573

Paul Feine, “McBastards: McDonald’s and Globalization” 576

Colleen Walsh, “Education Without Limits” 580

 Analyzing Perspectives on the Issue 584

 From Reading to Research Assignments 585


Credits 586



Christine Alfano has been a lecturer in the Program in Writing and Rhetoric since 1998.  She holds a BA from Brown University and PhD from Stanford and specializes in digital rhetoric.  In her recent PWR courses, “The Rhetoric of Gaming,” “Networked Rhetoric,” "Technologies of iDentity" and "Cultural Interfaces," Christine challenges students to explore how writing in different technological modes (from traditional Microsoft Word documents, to blogs, threaded discussions, social network profiles, video blogs and wikis) transforms the modern practice of communication and how we represent ourselves online and off.  In addition, Christine is the technology specialist for the Cross-Cultural Rhetoric Project, a project that allows Stanford PWR students to engage in intercultural collaboration with students from other universities around the world using video conferencing and other modes of communication technologies.


Dr. Alyssa J. O'Brien is a Lecturer in the Program and Writing and Rhetoric at Stanford University, where she directs the Cross-Cultural Rhetoric initiative and publishes scholarship and textbooks on visual rhetoric, writing pedagogy, and global learning. She has been an invited speaker in Asia and Europe on subjects such as global learning, communication for leadership, visual rhetoric, and “mapping a change in writing.”  In 2006, Alyssa won the Phi Beta Kappa Outstanding Teaching Award, and what she enjoys most is helping people discover their voices in writing of all kinds.  Her current first- and second-year writing courses focus on visual rhetoric, cross-cultural rhetoric, globalization, and communication for leadership.  Before coming to Stanford in 2001, she taught composition, creative writing, literature, and business writing at Cornell University, the Eastman School of Music, and the University of Rochester. 

Pathos, Logos, and Ethos in Advertising Essay

647 Words3 Pages

What captures the attention of people when they view an advertisement, commercial or poster? Is it the colors, a captivating phrase or the people pictured? While these are some of the elements often employed in advertising, we can look deeper and analyze the types of appeals that are utilized to draw attention to certain advertisements. The persuasive methods used can be classified into three modes. These modes are pathos, logos, and ethos. Pathos makes an appeal to emotions, logos appeals to logic or reason and ethos makes an appeal of character or credibility. Each appeal can give support to the message that is being promoted.
For example, to make people aware that breast cancer can affect even young women, thefaceofbreastcancer.com…show more content…

This poster urges the importance of getting examined early so the risk of breast cancer greatly diminishes.
One anti-smoking poster shows merely a pair of hands holding a revolver. Instead of bullets the hands are using cigarettes to load the weapon. Listed in small print on one side of the poster are numerous conditions that may be related to smoking, such as fatal heart attacks, emphysema, cancer, and gum disease. The phrase “Smoking kills… so why bother starting” is printed in large font at the bottom of the poster. The message of this poster is clear: Don’t Smoke. The poster is trying to portray that smoking is like holding a loaded weapon. Just as someone would be endangering their life with the loaded gun, they would also be endangering their life with the use of cigarettes. The consequences and health issues associated with smoking can be just as deadly as those of the gun. Ultimately, if someone smokes they are putting their life at risk. Therefore, the logical act is to never start smoking.
Finally, a poster from the Centers for Disease Control and the National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance features Katie Couric, a well known news broadcast personality, framing her face with her hands. The question, “Are you the picture of health?’ is printed on the left of the poster. Couric’s quote,

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