Creswell Case Study Ppt

Presentation on theme: "Case Study Research A Qualitative Approach to Inquiry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Case Study Research A Qualitative Approach to Inquiry
Prepared and Presented by:Maureen BermanVikki LoRussoWayne Loper

2 Case Study Research Definition Case Study Research
involves the study of an issue explored through one or more cases within a bounded system (i.e., a setting, a context.)a methodology, a type of design in qualitative research, or an object of study, as well as a product of the inquiry.(Creswell, 2007, p. 73)

3 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Case Study Research includesIn-depth Study of a Single Case or Collective CaseBounded System – the ‘case’ selected for study has boundaries often bounded by time and placeMultiple Sources of Information – the use of many different sources of information to prove ‘depth’ to the caseCase Description – stating the “facts about the case as recorded by the investigator. This is the first step of analysis of data in a qualitative case study.Case Based Themes - the researcher analyzes the data for specific theme’s, aggregating information into large clusters of ideas and providing details that support the themes.(Creswell, 2007, p. 73)

4 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Bounded SystemTime—6 months of data collectionPlace—situated on a single campusSingle Case—campus communityThe reactions of the groups on campusMultiple Sources of InformationInitial InterviewsCampus administrators, students, newspaper reportersExpanded InterviewsCampus informants and gathered observational data,documents and audio visual materialsCase DescriptionNarrative structure to describe details including editedquotes from the informants and stating the interviewersinterpretations of the eventsConsiderable time describing the setting for the caseCase Based ThemesDenialFearSafetyRetriggeringCampus planning (Preparedness)(Creswell, 2007, pp )

5 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Types of Case Studies (Creswell, 2007, p. 74)Distinguished by the size of the bounded caseDoes the case involve:An individualSeveral individualsA groupAn entire programAn activityDistinguished by the intent of the case analysisSingle Instrumental Case Study –the focus is on the specific issue and a bounded case is selected to illustrate the issue. (i.e., the gunman case study) (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 74)Collective Case Study –the focus is on an issue but multiple case studies are examined to illustrate the issueIntrinsic Case Study –the focus is on the case because it presents an unusual or unique situation (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 74)

6 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Procedures for Conducting a Case Study (Stake, 1995, Creswell, 2007, pp )Determine appropriatenessclearly definable boundaries that seeks to provide an in depth understanding of the case(s)Identify the case or casessingle or collective, multi-sited or with-in site,Data collectionvery extensive, drawing on multiple sources of information (observations, interviews, documents, audiovisual materials)Type of data analysisHolistic Analysis – examine the entire case and present the description, themes, and interpretations related to the whole case (Yin, 2003, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)Embedded Analysis – select one analytic aspect of the case for presentation (i. e., The gunman case study involved tracing the campus response to a gunman for two weeks immediately following the near tragedy on campus.) (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)Detailed Description – stating the facts as recorded by the investigator (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)Analysis of Themes - analyzes the data for specific themes aggregating information into large clusters of ideas and providing details that support the themes not to generalize about the case but to better understand the complexity of the case (Yin, 2003, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)

7 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Procedures for Conducting a Case Study (Cont’d)Interpretive phase: Identifying the meaning of the caseDirect Interpretation - look at a single instance and draw meaning from it without looking for multiple instances of it: pulling the data apart (analysis) and putting it back together (synthesis) in a meaningful wayEstablish Patterns – establish patterns and looks for a correspondence between two or more categories which can be displayed in a table format to establish a small number of categoriesDevelop Naturalistic Generalizations – from analyzing the data, generalizations that people can learn from the case either for themselves or to apply to a population of cases an investigator undertakes a case study to make the case understandable(Stake, 1995, as stated in Creswell, 2007, p. 163)

8 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Challenges in Developing a Case StudyIdentifying the Case or IssueIs the Issue Worth Studying?Has the Issue any Value?What Type of Case Study Will You Conduct?Single or Multiple Cases?What Is the Most Useful and Promising?Data CollectionEstablish a RationaleIs Enough Information Available?BoundariesHow Will You Bound Your Case Study?(Creswell, 2007, pp )

9 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Challenges in Developing a Case StudyWhat Is the Intent of Your Study?Will it Generate Theory?Will it Be Analytic in Nature?Will it Display Cross Case Comparisons?Will it Display Within Case Comparisons?(Creswell, 2007, pp )

10 Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Case Study StructureOverall Rhetorical StructureShort Descriptive Opening StatementIdentify the Issue, Purpose and MethodExtensive Body of Uncontested DataPresentation of Key IdeasInvestigation of the IssuesAssertionsClosing StatementEmbedded Rhetorical StructureWhat Specific Structures Does theResearcher Use to Present the Study?ApproachProper Balance(Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, pp )

11 A Case Study Versus a Narrative Study (Creswell, 2007, pp. 225-226)
Research Approach ComparisonA Case Study Versus a Narrative Study (Creswell, 2007, pp )Case StudyNarrative StudyResearch ApproachClearly Identifiable Case is Examined often Illustrating the Complexity of an IssueThe Life of a Single IndividualPurpose StatementBounded, Single or Collective Case, Event, Process, Program, IndividualStories, Epiphanies, Lived Experiences, ChronologyQuestionsWhat Happened? Differing Approaches, Intents and StructuresWhat Stories Can be Told and What Theories Relate to this Individual’s LifeData CollectionDocuments, Records, Interviews, Observationand ArtifactsDocuments, Interviews,Observations and Archived MaterialsData Analysis and RepresentationDescribe the Case and Context, Establish Themes and Patterns, Develop Naturalistic GeneralizationsDescribe Experiences, Identify Stories, and Interpret the Larger MeaningWritten ReportPresent In-Depth Picture Using Narrative, Tables, and FiguresPresent Narration Focusing on Process, Theories, and Features of the Life

12 Research Approach Comparison
A Case Study Versus a Phenomenological Study (Creswell, 2007, pp )Case StudyPhenomenological StudyResearch ApproachClearly Identifiable Case is Examined often Illustrating the Complexity of an IssueExamine a psychological concept, a phenomenon.Purpose StatementBounded, Single or Collective Case, Event, Process, Program, IndividualDescribe; Experiences; Meaning; EssenceQuestionsWhat Happened? Differing Approaches, Intents and StructuresWhat was experienced? How did they experience it? What meaning did they ascribe to it?Data CollectionDocuments, Records, Interviews, Observationand ArtifactsExtensive interviews with five to twenty-five people. Often, multiple interviews with the same individuals.Data Analysis and RepresentationDescribe the Case and Context, Establish Themes and Patterns, Develop Naturalistic GeneralizationsAnalyze for significant meanings and statements. Look for significant statements or quotes about their meanings.Written ReportPresent In-Depth Picture Using Narrative, Tables, and FiguresCluster into broader theme. Describe what (textual) they experienced; how (structural) they experienced. Combine the two to describe the essence of their experience.

13 Research Approach Comparison
A Case Study Versus a Grounded Theory Study (Creswell, 2007, pp. 225-, )Case StudyGrounded Theory StudyResearch ProblemClearly Identifiable Case is Examined often Illustrating the Complexity of an IssueMoves beyond a description of a phenomenon, develops a theory of practicePurpose StatementBounded, Single or Collective Case, Event, Process, Program, IndividualGenerate; Develop; Propositions; Process; Substantive theoryQuestionsWhat Happened? Differing Approaches, Intents and StructuresWhat theory explains the phenomenon? What were those experiences? What caused them? What strategies did they use to cope with them? What were the consequences of their strategies? What specific interaction issues and larger conditions influenced their strategies?Data CollectionDocuments, Records, Interviews, Observationand ArtifactsConduct interviews with between people.Data Analysis and RepresentationDescribe the Case and Context, Establish Themes and Patterns, Develop Naturalistic GeneralizationsProcedure for developing categories of info (open coding); interconnecting the categories (axial coding); building a story that connects the categories (selective coding); ends with a discursive set of theoretical propositions.(Strauss & Corbin, 1990, as cited in Creswell, p. 228)Written ReportPresent In-Depth Picture Using Narrative, Tables, and FiguresDiscusses the relationship of the theory to other existing knowledge and implications of the theory for future research and practice.(May, 1986, as cited in Creswell, p. 190)

14 Research Approach Comparison
A Case Study Versus an Ethnographical Study (Creswell, 2007, pp. 225, )Case StudyEthnographical StudyResearch ProblemClearly Identifiable Case is Examined often Illustrating the Complexity of an IssueGenerating a theory grounded in the data.Purpose StatementBounded, Single or Collective Case, Event, Process, Program, IndividualCulture-sharing group; Culture behavior and language; Culture portrait; Cultural themesQuestionsWhat Happened? Differing Approaches, Intents and StructuresHow did this incident produce predictable role performance within affected groups?Data CollectionDocuments, Records, Interviews, Observationand ArtifactsExtended time interviews and observations. 1) Build rapport with community participation; 2) Observe over time predictable activities, behavior of roles 3) rely on interview, observations, newspaper accounts.Data Analysis and RepresentationDescribe the Case and Context, Establish Themes and Patterns, Develop Naturalistic GeneralizationsInterpret and make sense of the findings to see how the culture works. Then present narrative presentation enhanced with tables, figures and sketches.Written ReportPresent In-Depth Picture Using Narrative, Tables, and FiguresThe report is a summary of the analysis and interpretation.

15 ReferencesCohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Presentation on theme: "Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 1.   A case study is the study of an issue through one or more cases in a setting or context (a bounded system)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 1

2   A case study is the study of an issue through one or more cases in a setting or context (a bounded system)  It is an object of study and a product of the inquiry  One case or multiple cases over time can be studied Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 2 Case Study: Definition and Background

3   Multiple sources of data are used that result from detailed in-depth data collection  The report consists of description of the case and theme development about the case  Case study research is interdisciplinary Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 3 Case Study: Definition and Background

4   Single instrumental case study - The researcher focuses on a single issue then selects a single case to illustrate the issue  Collective or multiple instrumental case study – The researcher focuses on one issue but selects multiple cases to illustrate the issue that can be purposefully sampled from one site or several sites Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 4 Types of Case Studies

5   Intrinsic case study – This approach focuses on the case itself because the case presents an unusual or unique situation (e.g., evaluating a program or one particular student who is having difficulty studying) Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 5 Types of Case Studies

6   Determine if a case study is appropriate for the research problem  Identify the case or cases to be studied  What kind of case study is most appropriate  What case or cases will be studied  Select cases that show different perspectives through maximal variation sampling  Engage in multiple forms of data collection including interviews, observations, documents, audio visual materials, participant-observations to develop an in depth understanding of the case(s) Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 6 Case Study Research Procedures

7   Develop a detailed description of the case(s) and common themes in the cases  When using multiple cases describe each case and themes first ( within-case analysis )  Compare cases to look for common themes (c ross- case analysis)  Look for common assertions and meanings within the case  Report the lessons learned from the case regarding the issue of the case (instrumental) or learning about an unusual situation (intrinsic case) Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 7 Case Study Research Procedures

8   Overview of the study  The study described a campus reaction to a gunman incident on a mid-western university campus  The study began with a detailed description of the incident including a description of the city, campus, and the incident  The study used multiple sources of data Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 8 Case Study Example: Asmussen & Creswell 1995

9   Overview of the study  Five themes emerged: denial, fear, safety, retriggering, and campus planning  The themes were narrowed to two overarching perspectives, an organizational and social- psychological response  A suggestion was made that campuses need to develop a plan to respond to campus violence Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 9 Asmussen & Creswell 1995

10   Overview of methodology  The problem appropriate for case study (description of a campus response to a gunman incident)  The data was collected through multiple sources  Interviews  Observations  Documents  Audiovisual materials Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 10 Asmussen & Creswell 1995

11   Overview of methodology  The data was analyzed for codes and themes  The themes were used to form over-arching perspectives that were also related to the literature  The case study structure was followed – the problem, the context, the issues, and lessons learned  The study included practical and useful implications  The authors were reflective about their prior experiences related to the problem (epilogue) Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 11 Asmussen & Creswell 1995

12   Features of case study  The authors identified a case for study  The authors chose an instrumental case to illustrate the problem of potential campus violence  The case was a bounded system  The authors used extensive multiple sources of data to provide a detailed picture of the incident and campus response  The authors spent considerable time describing the context for the case Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 12 Asmussen & Creswell 1995

13   Case study  Bounded single or collective  Case  Event  Process  Program Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 13 Words to Use in Encoding the Purpose Statement in Case Study

14  Although scholars have shown that sport is fundamental in constituting and reproducing gender inequalities, little attention has been paid to sport and gender relations in later life. In this article we demonstrate how men exploit women’s labor in the sport of lawn bowls, which is played predominately by older people. (Boyle & McKay, 1995, p. 556) Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 14 The Purpose Statement: A Case Study Example Elements of Case Study Description Specific Case Bounded System demonstrate how men exploit women’s labor in the sport of lawn bowls, predominately by older people

15   A case study example (Asmussen & Creswell, 1995)  The authors posed five central guiding questions in the article  What happened?  Who was involved in response to the incident?  What themes emerged during the eight-month period that followed this incident?  What theoretical constructs helped us to understand the campus response?  The questions focused on the development of a description of the incident, the emergence of themes, and finally theoretical constructs Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 15 The Central Question

16   Description of the case and its setting  If there is a chronology of events, find evidence for each step  Determine how the case or incident fits into the larger situation  Approaches to analysis and interpretation  Categorical aggregation: the researcher collects instances from the data to look for issue-relevant meanings  Direct interpretation: the researcher looks at a single instance and draws meaning from it Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 16 Analysis Within the Approaches to Inquiry: Case Study (Stake 1995)

17   Approaches to analysis and interpretation  Cross-case analysis: the research studies two or more cases to look for similarities between the two  Naturalistic generalizations: the researcher notes what can be learned for individuals or a larger population from the case Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 17 Analysis Within the Approaches to Inquiry: Case Study (Stake 1995)

18  Entry vignette  Introduction (problem, questions, case study, data collection, analysis, outcomes)  Description of the case(s) and its (their) context  Development of issues  Detail about selected issues  Assertions  Closing vignette (Adapted from Stake, 1995) Reporting Structures

19   Writer opens with a vignette so the reader can get a feel for the time and place of the study  The issue is identified along with the method and purpose  Extensive description of the case  Key issues are presented so the reader can understand the complexity of the case Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 19 Case Study: Overall Rhetorical Structure (Stake, 1995)

20   Several issues are probed further  Assertions are presented  The writer ends with a closing vignette to remind the reader that this is one person’s encounter with a complex case Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 20 Case Study: Overall Rhetorical Structure (Stake, 1995)

21   Vignettes  Description – from broad to narrow  Relative balance of description, themes, and interpretation  Use chronologies in the description  End with “lessons that I learned” – assertions or generalizations Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 21 Case Study: Embedded Rhetorical Structure

22   Identifying cases to study  Identifying whether a single case or multiple cases are needed  Selecting an appropriate purposeful sampling strategy  Having access to multiple sources of data  Deciding how the boundaries of a case might be constrained by time, events, or processes Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2eCase Study 22 Case Study Challenges

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