Entries for articles from periodicals, like books, have three main divisions, each ending with a period. The first part is the name of the author or authors. The second part is the title of the article, enclosed in quotation marks. The third part of the entry is the publication information, which begins with the name of the periodical. Underline or italicize the journal title, and capitalize all words except prepositions and articles that do not begin the title or follow a colon. Additional publication information , such as the volume number and the date of publication, follows the title and concludes with a colon, a space, the page numbers of the article, and a period. If an article is continued from its first page to a nonconsecutive page, give only the first page and (without a space) a + sign.
Article in a Journal Paginated by Annual VolumeGive the journal title (italicized or underlined) followed by a space, the volume number, another space, the year of publication (in parentheses), a colon, a space, and the page numbers of the article without the abbreviationp. or pp.
Article in a Journal Paginated by IssueAdd a period and the issue number (also in arabic numerals) to the volume number.
Article in a Monthly or Bimonthly PeriodicalIf the journal is a monthly or bimonthly periodical, list the month and year of publication instead of the volume number.
Article in a Daily, Weekly, or Biweekly Magazine or NewspaperInclude the year, month, and day.
Paper Published in Conference ProceedingsTreat a presentation in conference proceedings like an article in an edited book.
Unpublished Paper Presented at a MeetingGive the author's name, the title of the paper, the meeting, and the presentation. Underline or italicize the title of the paper. Then write "Paper presented at" and the name of conference and its location, followed by the date.
Unpublished DissertationGive the title of the dissertation in quotation marks. Then add Diss. and the name of the university, followed by the year.
This short guide will help you better understand how to properly reference sources using Harvard Style, also known as the “Author and Date System.” Listed below are some general rules to follow when using this reference style to cite sources in your bibliography or reference list. As you read through this guide, keep in mind that the Harvard Guide stresses consistency throughout a document. A handy, simple-to-use chart also offers tips and examples for citing your sources using the Harvard Style.
According to Harvard Style, there are generally no specific rules regarding capitalizing an author’s last name in the body of your work. However, authors’ last names should be capitalized in the reference list or bibliography and consistency throughout the document is ideal.
Italics and Underlining
The title of a source must be either underlined or italicized, but not both. The Harvard Style has no preference to either; however, consistency should be maintained throughout the document.
Regarding punctuation, consistency is key. For example, if you prefer to place a period inside the ending quotation mark, then be sure to do this throughout the entire document.
Any information that is not your own thought, idea or quote must be cited. Within your document, simply cite sources using authors’ last name and date in parenthesis. This must follow the sentence you quoted or referenced.
How to Reference Specific Sources
There are a variety of types of sources that may be used in order to form your thesis or the body of your assignment. The following chart will give you a better understanding of the specifics regarding particular source types. Determine what kind of source you are using and then use the chart to reference it using the Harvard Style.