# Critical Thinking Routledge Test Bank

## WELCOME

Welcome! This is the companion website for *Critical Thinking: An Appeal to Reason*. In *Critical Thinking*, Peg Tittle empowers students with a solid grounding in the lifelong skills of considered analysis and argumentation — skills that should underpin every student's education.

### What You Will Find on this Website

#### Instructors and lecturers:

An Instructor's Manual, PowerPoint presentation slides, testbank questions, and Answers, Explanations, and Analyses for all even numbered exercises within the book.

#### Students:

Chapter overviews and objectives, in print and downloadable MP3s so students can study on the go, a glossary containing the Review of terms for each chapter, flashcards for students to quiz themselves, Thinking Critically About What You Hear exercises, Answers, Explanations and Analyses for all odd numbered exercises in the book, and three supplemental chapters, not found in the book: Categorical Logic, Propositional Logic, and Thinking Critically About Ethics.

### What instructors are saying about *Critical Thinking*:

“Ron Cooper, Professor of Philosophy, College of Central FloridaCritical Thinking: An Appeal to Reasonis the ideal book for any class, philosophy and otherwise, in which evaluating arguments is central. Few texts are as thorough, and none are as accessible, clear, and pleasurable.Critical Thinkingis chock-full of examples of arguments and fallacies from Tittle's fecund imagination, as well as an astonishing breadth of sources from classic to contemporary – enough to capture any student's attention. Add to this some wonderfully lucid diagrams, and you have a book that is unmatched by any in its field.”

“Lauren Weis, Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Religion, American UniversityCritical Thinkingis appealing because it is carefully and clearly written, presents concrete and contemporary examples, and is well-organized to capture the heuristic that guides students in learning to think critically. In addition, the template for the critical analysis of arguments (introduced in Chapter 1 and helpfully repeated in each chapter) is clear and effective.”

The course is subdivided into 5 separate modules. A student opting for this course should follow the following path:

1. **Set Theory**

This module introduces the basic of naïve set theory. This allows us to develop a language that can be used to understand various concepts of Logic. This module is of two hours. Students should go through the lecture notes and try to answer the questions provided in the question bank. When students are satisfied with their understanding of the material, then can take the quiz to test their understanding.

2. **Theory of Numbers**

This module introduces students to the basic of the theory of numbers. Students learn about the natural numbers, integers, rational numbers and real numbers. These concepts will help us to crate examples that explain various concepts of logic. The students are also introduced to mathematical induction: a technique used to prove various results about natural numbers.

This module is of one hour. Students should go through the lecture notes and try to answer the questions provided in the question bank. When students are satisfied with their understanding of the material, then can take the quiz to test their understanding.

3. **Constants and Variables**

This modules explains the concept of a sentence. It explains how a concept of a sentence in logic is different from a sentence used in everyday language. It introduces the related concepts of a designatory function and a sentential function. It explains how variables in a sentential function can be replaced by constants to construct sentences. It also discusses the role of quantifiers in the construction of sentences.

This module is of one hour. Students should go through the lecture notes and try to answer the questions provided in the question bank. When students are satisfied with their understanding of the material, then can take the quiz to test their understanding.

4. ** ****Sentential Calculus**

This module starts by introducing students to the use of logical conjunctions like ‘not’, ‘or’, ‘and’ & ‘if…, then…’. It explains the concepts of argument, premise and conclusion. Students are taught to use truth tables to establish laws of sentential calculus.

This module is of four hour. Students should go through the lecture notes and try to answer the questions provided in the question bank. When students are satisfied with their understanding of the material, then can take the quiz to test their understanding.

5. **Theory of Relations**

This module introduces the concept of binary relations. The concepts of domain and co-domain are explained. The module then explains the algebra of relations: operations through which new relations can be constructed from existing relations. In this context, we discuss some special relations like the universal relation and the null relations. The module also discusses the concepts of reflexive relations, transitive relations, symmetric relations etc.

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