Energy Drink Contents Comparison Essay

1. Reissig CJ, Strain EC, Griffiths RR. Caffeinated energy drinks—a growing problem. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99(1-3):1-10 [PMC free article][PubMed]

2. Weise E. Petition calls for FDA to regulate energy drinks. USA Today. October22, 2008. Accessed September 3, 2010

3. Bryce DJ, Dyer JH. Strategies to crack well-guarded markets. Harv Bus Rev. 2007;85(5):84-92 [PubMed]

4. Ballard SL, Wellborn-Kim JJ, Clauson KA. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition. Phys Sportsmed. 2010;38(1):107-117 [PubMed]

5. Thombs DL, O'Mara RJ, Tsukamoto M, et al. Event-level analyses of energy drink consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. Addict Behav. 2009;35(4):325-330 [PubMed]

6. Miller KE. Energy drinks, race, and problem behaviors among college students. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(5):490-497 [PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Howarth KR, Moreau NA, Phillips SM, Gibala MJ. Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(4):1394-1402 [PubMed]

8. Riesenhuber A, Boehm M, Posch M, Aufricht C. Diuretic potential of energy drinks. Amino Acids. 2006;31(1):81-83 [PubMed]

9. Rashti SL, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Faigenbaum AD, Chilakos A, Hoffman JR. Thermogenic effect of meltdown RTD energy drink in young healthy women: a double blind, cross-over design study. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:57 [PMC free article][PubMed]

10. Davis JM, Burgess WA, Slentz CA, Bartoli WP, Pate RR. Effects of ingesting 6% and 12% glucose/electrolyte beverages during prolonged intermittent cycling in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1988;57(5):563-569 [PubMed]

11. Berger AJ, Alford K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated “energy drinks.” Med J Aust. 2009;190(1):41-43 [PubMed]

12. Nagajothi N, Khraisat A, Velazquez-Cecena JL, et al. Energy drink-related supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Med. 2008;121(4):e3-e4 [PubMed]

13. Jones G. Caffeine and other sympathomimetic stimulants: modes of action and effects on sports performance. Essays Biochem. 2008;44(1):109-123 [PubMed]

14. Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc. (2003) 2008;48(3):e55-e63 [PubMed]

15. Calamaro CJ, Mason TB, Ratcliffe SJ. Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics. 2009;123(6):e1005-e1010 [PubMed]

16. Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):315-324 [PubMed]

17. Sokmen B, Armstrong LE, Kraemer WJ, et al. Caffeine use in sports: considerations for the athlete. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):978-986 [PubMed]

18. Clarkson PM. Nutrition for improved sports performance: current issues on ergogenic aids. Sports Med. 1996;21(6):393-401 [PubMed]

19. Blanchard J, Sawers SJ. The absolute bioavailability of caffeine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;24(1):93-98 [PubMed]

20. Laurent D, Schneider KE, Prusaczyk WK, et al. Effects of caffeine on muscle glycogen utilization and the neuroendocrine axis during exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(6):2170-2175 [PubMed]

21. Piirainen H, Ashok Y, Nanekar RT, Jaakola VP. Structural features of adenosine receptors: from crystal to function. Biochim Biophys Acta. [published online ahead of print June 2, 2010] doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.05.021. [PubMed]

22. Mayo Clinic Staff Nutrition and healthy eating: caffeine: how much is too much? Web site. Published March24, 2009. Accessed September 3, 2010

23. Mahmud A, Feely J. Acute effect of caffeine on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform. Hypertension. 2001;38(2):227-231 [PubMed]

24. Neuhäuser-Berthold B, Beine S, Verwied SC, Lührmann PM. Coffee consumption and total body water homeostasis as measured by fluid balance and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Ann Nutr Metab. 1997;41(1):29-36 [PubMed]

25. Maughan RJ, Griffin J. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2003;16(6):411-420 [PubMed]

26. Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oates JA. Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man. J Clin Invest. 1981;67(4):1111-1117 [PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Fisher SM, McMurray RG, Berry M, Mar MH, Forsythe WA. Influence of caffeine on exercise performance in habitual caffeine users. Int J Sports Med. 1986;7(5):276-280 [PubMed]

28. Armstrong LE, Pumerantz AC, Roti MW, et al. Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(3):252-265 [PubMed]

29. Gaull GE. Taurine in pediatric nutrition: review and update. Pediatrics. 1989;83(3):433-442 [PubMed]

30. Ghandforoush-Sattari M, Mashayekhi S, Krishna CV, Thompson JP, Routledge PA. Pharmacokinetics of oral taurine in healthy volunteers. J Amino Acids. 2010;10 Accessed September 3, 2010 [PMC free article][PubMed]

31. Lourenço R, Camilo ME. Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease. Nutr Hosp. 2002;17(6):262-270 [PubMed]

32. Sato S, Kurasaki M. The physiological role of taurine in tissues and organs, especially in the liver and kidney. Foods Food Ingred J Jpn. 2003;208(2):133-139

33. Zółtaszek R, Hanausek M, Kiliańska ZM, Walaszek Z. The biological role of D-glucaric acid and its derivatives: potential use in medicine [in Polish]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2008;62:451-462 [PubMed]

34. Scientific Committee on Food European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on additional information on “energy” drinks. Published March5, 2003. Accessed September 3, 2010

35. Depeint F, Bruce WR, Shangari N, Mehta R, O'Brien PJ. Mitochondrial function and toxicity: role of the B vitamin family on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;163(1-2):94-112 [PubMed]

36. Ba A. Metabolic and structural role of thiamine in nervous tissues. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28(7):923-931 [PubMed]

37. Lakshmi AV. Riboflavin metabolism–relevance to human nutrition. Indian J Med Res. 1998;108(1):182-190 [PubMed]

38. Sauve AA. NAD+ and vitamin B3: from metabolism to therapies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324(3):883-893 [PubMed]

39. Spinneker A, Sola R, Lemmen V, Castillo MJ, Pietrzik K, Gonzalez-Gross M. Vitamin B6 status, deficiency and its consequences—an overview. Nutr Hosp. 2007;22(1):7-24 [PubMed]

40. Balla T. Regulation of Ca2+ entry by inositol lipids in mammalian cells by multiple mechanisms. Cell Calcium. 2009;45(6):527-534 [PMC free article][PubMed]

41. da Costa Miranda V, Trufelli DC, Santos J, et al. Effectiveness of guarana (Paullinia cupana) for postradiation fatigue and depression: results of a pilot double-blind randomized study. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(4):431-433 [PubMed]

42. Smith N, Atroch AL. Guaraná's journey from regional tonic to aphrodisiac and global energy drink. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007;5(10):5 [PMC free article][PubMed]

43. Bahrke MS, Morgan WP, Stegner A. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):298-322 [PubMed]

44. Nicolaï SP, Kruidenier LM, Bendermacher BL, Prins MH, Teijink JA. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD006888 [PubMed]

45. Zhou W, Chai H, Lin PH, Lumsden AB, Yao Q, Chen C. Clinical use and molecular mechanisms of action of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2004;22(4):309-319 [PubMed]

46. Karlic H, Lohninger A. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense? Nutrition. 2004;20(7-8):709-715 [PubMed]

47. Bain MA, Milne RW, Evans AM. Disposition and metabolite kinetics of oral L-carnitine in humans. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46(10):1163-1170 [PubMed]

48. el-Sayed MS, MacLaren D, Rattu AJ. Exogenous carbohydrate utilisation: effects on metabolism and exercise performance. Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol. 1997;118(3):789-803 [PubMed]

49. Burke LM, Millet G, Tarnopolsky MA, International Association of Athletics Federations Nutrition for distance events [published correction appears in J Sports Sci. 2009;27(6):667] J Sports Sci. 2007;25(suppl 1):S29-S38 [PubMed]

50. Jeukendrup AE, Jentjens RL, Moseley L. Nutritional considerations in triathlon. Sports Med. 2005;35(2):163-181 [PubMed]

51. Tappy L, Lê KA, Tran C, Paquot N. Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions [published online ahead of print May 13, 2010] Nutrition. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2010.02.014 [PubMed]

52. Peake JM, Suzuki K, Coombes JS. The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(6):357-371 [PubMed]

53. Williams SL, Strobel NA, Lexis LA, Coombes JS. Antioxidant requirements of endurance athletes: implications for health. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(3):93-108 [PubMed]

54. Margaritis I, Rousseau AS. Does physical exercise modify antioxidant requirements? Nutr Res Rev. 2008;21(1):3-12 [PubMed]

55. Steinke L, Lanfear DE, Dhanapal V, Kalus JS. Effect of “energy drink” consumption on hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters in healthy young adults. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(4):596-602 [PubMed]

56. Baum M, Weiss M. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Amino Acids. 2001;20(1):75-82 [PubMed]

57. Ragsdale FR, Gronli TD, Batool N, et al. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function. Amino Acids. 2010;38(4):1193-1200 [PubMed]

58. Candow DG, Kleisinger AK, Grenier S, Dorsch KD. Effect of sugar-free Red Bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(4):1271-1275 [PubMed]

59. Ivy JL, Kammer L, Ding Z, et al. Improved cycling time-trial performance after ingestion of a caffeine energy drink. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(1):61-78 [PubMed]

60. Red Bull, alcohol and drugs ‘can spark violence.’ Published February21, 2007. Accessed September 3, 2010

61. Terlizzi R, Rocchi C, Serra M, Solieri L, Cortelli P. Reversible postural tachycardia syndrome due to inadvertent overuse of Red Bull. Clin Auton Res. 2008;18(4):221-223 [PubMed]

62. Masuda K, Katoh N, Mizutani H, Kishimoto S. Anaphylaxis to vitamin B2 added to an energy drink. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34(7):e263-e264 [PubMed]

63. Hew-Butler T, Verbalis JG, Noakes TD. Updated fluid recommendation: position statement from the International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA). Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16(4):283-292 [PubMed]

64. CBC News Red Bull promotion near Halifax schools halted: energy drink maker tells province promotion was a mistake. Updated September27, 2007. Accessed September 3, 2010

65. Frishman WH, Del Vecchio A, Sanal S, Ismail A. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine. Heart Dis. 2003;5(4):253-271 [PubMed]

66. Sudano I, Binggeli C, Spieker L, et al. Cardiovascular effects of coffee: is it a risk factor? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;20(2):65-69 [PubMed]

67. Jones B. Tapes reveal Stallworth had tequila, shots before fatal accident. USA Today. July8, 2009. Accessed September 3, 2010

68. Curry K, Stasio MJ. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(6):473-481 [PubMed]

69. Oteri A, Salvo F, Caputi AP, Calapai G. Intake of energy drinks in association with alcoholic beverages in a cohort of students of the School of Medicine of the University of Messina. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31(10):1677-1680 [PubMed]

70. Wiklund U, Karlsson M, Ostrom M, Messner T. Influence of energy drinks and alcohol on post-exercise heart rate recovery and heart rate variability. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009;29(1):74-80 [PubMed]

Energy Drinks

The Coffee and Energy Drink Double Standard

Often energy drink fans complain that there is a huge double standard when it comes to energy drinks.

Coffee that is actually more caffeinated is praised.

Energy drinks are demonized.

Why is this and are there any reasons energy drinks should be treated differently than the “original energy drink” coffee?

A Perfect Example of This Phenomenon

Top Sail High School in North Carolina, USA opened a student run campus coffee shop, where students can get coffee before and after school.

This is a great way for students to learn about business, economics, making coffee, customer service, cooking etc. but could you imagine what would have happened if the students wanted to open an energy drink stand before or after school?

Energy drinks have been banned from most school campuses, yet in this case, coffee is viewed as perfectly acceptable for teens.

As our caffeine database shows, ounce per ounce coffee has more caffeine. For instance:

  • A fluid ounce of typical  filter coffee has 18mg of caffeine.
  • A fluid ounce of a typical Rockstar or Monster has 10mg of caffeine.
  • Take a look at Starbucks caffeine and you see a fluid ounce of their brew has 22.5mg of caffeine.

Are There Other Factors Besides Caffeine?

Unfortunately for energy drink fans, there are some legitimate reasons why coffee and energy drinks are not treated equally.

While coffee does have more caffeine than energy drinks, it’s how the caffeine is delivered that seems to be at issue.

  1. Energy drinks have very little long-term safety research behind them, while coffee has been used for centuries and has been extensively researched over the last 100 years.
  2. Energy drinks are more than just caffeine, but a combination of caffeine, amino acids, vitamins, and often herbs.
  3. Energy drinks are often high in sugar, while even sweetened coffee would contain less. A Monster Energy Drink has 54 grams of sugar, which is equal to 13.5 teaspoons!
  4. Coffee is an all natural beverage, while energy drinks are often laden with artificial preservatives, flavors, and dyes.
  5. Coffee is sipped, while energy drinks tend to be consumed quickly thus delivering their dose of caffeine quicker.
  6. Energy drinks are sweet and often fruit flavored, which appeals more to children and teens than does often bitter tasting coffee.
  7. Energy drinks have generated an ever growing list of overdose cases leading to hospitalization and even some deaths. Coffee, historically, has very few of these occurrences.

Therefore, energy drinks can’t really be viewed with the same lens as we would coffee, since essentially, they are two completely different beverages.

The Media Shouldn’t Sensationalize

We always have to remember that the media is driven by viewers/readership and to get this, they usually dramatize and sensationalize just about all news stories.

This is true with energy drinks as well. There are actually very few people that have or have had negative health consequences from drinking energy drinks, although, most media outlets would want us to believe it is a common occurrence.

We believe education is key when it comes to energy drink consumption. There is more benefit to teaching consumers how to drink energy drinks responsibly than there is demonizing them.

Often what we adults forbid and protest actually becomes even more appealing to the very ones we are trying to protect.

What do you think? Have energy drinks been judged unfairly?  

By Caffeine Informer Staff

Last Modified: September 11, 2014


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *